Diversity, Composition, and Abundance of Avian Species in and around SemienMecha District Wetlands North Western, Ethiopia
The objective of the present study was assessing the species composition, relative abundance and species diversity of avifauna found in wetlands of Semin Mecha District. The diversity, relative abundance and distribution of the avian species were investigated from January 2019 to August 2019 both wet and dry seasons. Both point count and line transect methods were employed to identify birds from the three wetlands. A total of 39 species, 28 genera 14 families and 8 orders were identified. The order Charadriiformes dominated the list (4 families with 14 species) followed by Pelecaniformes (2 families with 9 species), Gruiformes (2 families with 4 species), suliformes 2 families with 3 species), psseriformes (1 family with 6 species), the rest Accipitriformes, phoenicopteriformes and podicipediformes(1 family with 1 species) each. Out of total 39 species, one species (Black billed gull) was endangered, two species (wattled crane and Black crowned crane were vulnerable, one specie (Rouget's rail) was near threatened, and thirty five bird species recorded were under the Least Concern category. Species abundance and diversity varied between the three habitats. Weinner Simpson index showed significant diversity of birds in Koga reservoir had higher species diversity (H’=5.9) followed by kurt Bahir dembar(H’=4.15) and lower species diversity Kurt Bahir (H’=2.53).The study shows that habitat destruction due to anthropogenic activities:- over-grazing, sedimentation, poor management of catchment, recession farming, over-utilization of resources, lack of awareness , Lack of sense of ownership, giving less attention to conservation were the main threats to the survival of wetland birds in the study area. The current management of wetlands is poor because of misuse of wetlands as the result birds are endangered. Thus urgent conservation measures are recommended to conserve the bird species.
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