Journal of Asian Development <p><strong><em>Journal of Asian Development</em> </strong>(ISSN 2377-9594) is an international, peer-reviewed, open-access journal that publishes two issues each year. The journal focuses on social science topics from the Asian region.</p> <p>The journal is owned and published by Bigedu Foundation, a not-for-profit organization regulated by the Canada Not-for-profit Corporations.</p> <p><strong><em>Journal of Asian Development</em> </strong>publishes all article types, such as original articles, review articles, case reports, technical reports, research letters, etc. Authors can only submit unpublished works, which are not under consideration for publication in any other journals.</p> <p>The journal accepts <a href=""><strong>Online submission</strong></a> and Email submission (<a href=""></a>)</p> en-US <p>Copyrights of all articles published in Bigedu Foundation are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work.</p> <p>All articles are published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license.</p> <p>Authors have the rights to reuse, republish, archive, and distribute their own articles after publication, and undertake to permit others to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon this work non-commercially provided the original work is properly cited. The full guidance that applies to the CC-BY license can be found at</p> (William Berger) (William Berger) Tue, 16 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Malaysia’s Energy-Growth Nexus and Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: Empirical Analysis Using the VECM and ARDL Cointegration Techniques <p>This paper investigated Malaysia’s energy-growth nexus and environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis over the period 1971-2014 by taking the globalization variables of trade openness and foreign direct investment (FDI) and the structural break dummy of the Asian financial crisis of 1997 into estimation. To give interference, the Granger causality tests were implemented in the framework of two cointegration techniques: vector error correction model (VECM) and autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL). As per Malaysia’s energy-growth nexus, referring to different results of the two approaches, we concluded that the presence of the energy-growth nexus was statistically confirmed, but it has not been fully established yet in the country. On the other hand, both the VECM and ARDL results provided the same conclusion for Malaysia’s EKC hypothesis, that is, in the initial stage, as the higher economic growth, the less CO<sub>2</sub> emissions, but after a threshold, the higher economic growth, the more CO<sub>2</sub> emissions.</p> Takashi Fukuda Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Asian Development Tue, 16 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Heterogeneity in the Effects of Group Lending in Microfinance-The Case of Mongolia <p>This study examines the heterogeneity of the effects of the joint and several liability systems of microfinance in Mongolia. The heterogeneity was examined from three perspectives: consumption, repayment rate, and income.</p> <p>In terms of business income and business expenditure, the older the household, the greater the number of loans, and the more private businesses the household owns, the greater the business expenditure. For household consumption, there is no difference between group and individual lending except in the number of private businesses, but when we restrict the analysis to food consumption, group lending increases food consumption more for households with more than one borrower and borrowers with longer borrowing periods. While more variable heterogeneity was found for the whole sample, only age and borrowing duration were found to affect household income across different types of microfinance for the poorest households with below median household income. The results of this study suggest that even if there was no significant difference in each attribute between the treatment and control groups, joint and several liabilities may or may not be effective depending on the level of the attribute. To maximize the effect of a simple measure, it is important to understand the factors that affect heterogeneity and the effective level of the heterogeneity. Even if a measure is not effective, it may become effective if the level of the attribute changes.</p> Takaharu Ishii Copyright (c) 2021 Takaharu Ishii Mon, 07 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0000