Journal of Asian Development <p><strong><em>Journal of Asian Development</em> </strong>(ISSN 2377-9594) is an international, peer-reviewed, open-access journal that publishes two issues each year. The journal focuses on social science topics from the Asian region. The journal is owned and published by Bigedu Foundation, a not-for-profit organization regulated by the Canada Not-for-profit Corporations.</p> <p><strong><em>Journal of Asian Development</em> </strong>publishes all article types, such as original articles, review articles, case reports, technical reports, research letters, etc. Authors can only submit unpublished works, which are not under consideration for publication in any other journals.</p> <p>The journal accepts <strong><a href="">Online submission</a></strong> and Email submission (<strong><a href=""></a></strong>)</p> Bigedu Foundation en-US Journal of Asian Development 2377-9594 <p>Copyrights of all articles published in Bigedu Foundation are retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the journal. The journal/publisher is not responsible for subsequent uses of the work.</p> <p>All articles are published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license.</p> <p>Authors have the rights to reuse, republish, archive, and distribute their own articles after publication, and undertake to permit others to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon this work non-commercially provided the original work is properly cited. The full guidance that applies to the CC-BY license can be found at</p> The Re-Examination of the Israel-Hamas War in the Light of the Just War Theory <p>The Israel-Hamas conflict presents a complex ethical dilemma when viewed through the lens of the just war theory. This essay examines the conflict in light of the theory's principles, including jus ad bellum, jus in bello, and jus post bellum. Justifying the resort to war requires careful consideration of factors such as just cause, legitimate authority, and right intention. However, interpretations of these criteria vary widely, reflecting divergent narratives and interests on both sides. Once hostilities commence, adherence to principles of proportionality and discrimination becomes paramount, yet the asymmetrical nature of the conflict complicates efforts to minimize harm to non-combatants. The concept of jus post bellum emphasizes the importance of achieving a just and sustainable peace, but persistent cycles of violence and political divisions impede progress toward reconciliation. By examining the Israel-Hamas conflict through the prism of just war theory, this paper highlights the challenges of applying ethical principles to contemporary conflicts and underscores the need for nuanced and context-specific approaches to promoting peace and justice. In conclusion, it is important for world leaders to abide by the principles of just war as they navigate conflict and warfare within their territories; and by upholding the ethical guidelines of proportionality, discrimination, and just cause, these leaders have the opportunity to reduce and minimize civilian casualties.</p> Ejuchegahi Anthony Angwaomaodoko Copyright (c) 2024 Ejuchegahi Anthony Angwaomaodoko 2024-06-29 2024-06-29 10 1 40 56 10.52941/jad.v10i1.58 A Decentralized Centralization in Cultural Heritage Management of Singapore <p>In view of the importance of cultural heritage management, this paper aims to review and critically think of a cultural heritage management structure combining decentralization and centralization, by examining the managerial issues associated with architectural heritage conservation in Singapore. Its heritage management structure is interpreted around statutory boards and their grassroots support, drawing a clear picture of how Singaporean cultural heritage is preserved and managed in a decentralized-centralization structure. On this basis, a critical thinking about Singapore’s structure of cultural heritage management is developed. This paper found out that Singapore with a typical centralized managerial structure set up statutory boards as governmental agency to enhance the flexibility of operating conservation projects, avoiding possible weakness of state-centered management framework. In addition, this paper argued that a management system in combination with centralization and decentralization seems commonplace around the world, on the grounds that a pure centralized structure is often accompanied by cumbersome bureaucracy and the function of a pure decentralized structure is generally constrained due to possible stereotyping behaving and thinking way of civil servants with professional backgrounds.</p> Xiang Qian Copyright (c) 2024 Xiang Qian 2024-05-22 2024-05-22 10 1 21 39 10.52941/jad.v10i1.55 “The Principle of Livelihood” by Sun Yat-sen and Its Significance for Social Justice and Happiness Values in Vietnam Today <p>This paper explores the “Three Principles of the People” described by Sun Yat-sen, known as the founder of modern China. In his political manifesto, he laid out the revolution’s objectives against the Qing dynasty and established the groundwork for a modern China. We apply Sun Yat-sen’s theory to advocate our beliefs for the betterment of the Vietnamese people. This paper analyzes and applies the “Principle of Livelihood,” the third principle of Sun Yat-sen’s doctrine, and aims to achieve social welfare and happiness. We examine its role in bringing about a new era of independence, freedom, and happiness in Vietnam’s history.</p> <p>By using these concepts to understand Vietnamese values of happiness, we can comprehend the importance of Sun Yat-sen’s views, which are crucial to Vietnam’s current state of independence, freedom, wealth, and happiness.</p> Tuyen Nguyen Thi Mong Copyright (c) 2024 2024-04-10 2024-04-10 10 1 1 20 10.52941/jad.v10i1.54